I’ve been waiting a long time for this and I’m pretty sure all planetary scientists have been waiting a long time for this too. It’s regarded as the most important destination(s) in the solar system. That’s right, we’re finally off to the moons of Jupiter. Well we will be in 2022 anyway.
After a brief competition with two other space mission proposals JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) will head off to Jupiter in 2022 and arrive in 2030 and spent a minimum of 3 years studying Jupiter’s moons. And it’s a European mission too!
Why the moons of Jupiter? Well, the moons here are exceedingly interesting. Io, first of all, is the most volcanic object in the solar system (although Io won’t be studied much with this mission). The other 3 main moons are the really exciting ones though. Callisto is a fairly large moon and its surface is incredibly old, peppered with craters. It’s holding clues as to the formation of the Jupiter system some 4.5 billion years ago. Europa, the most famous of the moons, has a liquid ocean beneath it’s icy surface, and a very bizarre looking surface. Could there be life in the ocean? It’s a distinct possibility. The mission is mainly focusing on Ganymede though, the largest moon in the solar system, so large it’s bigger than Mercury! It generates it’s own magnetic field. How? Through a salty sub-surface ocean or a molten iron core?
The spacecraft itself looks quite interesting too. It’s going to be operating at the limits of what’s possible. It’ll be using solar power where there isn’t much solar power. Previous missions have used nuclear generators which are far more efficient this far out, but there’s a shortage of the plutonium required for such endeavours at the moment. We’re likely to get an advancement in solar power technology through the efforts of this mission though.
In my opinion NASA have really mucked up. With all their budget cuts they’re not planning a mission to launch to study Jupiter’s moons until well into the 2030’s despite having been told it is the utmost priority of planetary science at the moment. There’s a possibility they’ll add some hardware to the JUICE mission, but we’ll have to really wait and see. What we’d like to see is a Europa lander and ocean explorer (as outlined in NASA’s JIMO mission, now cancelled).
There’s one certainty though, we’re going to find out some truly exciting stuff and we’re going to be surprised with what we find!
- Why Jupiter’s moon Ganymede is an exciting destination (newscientist.com)
- ESA Turns On The JUICE For New Jupiter Mission (universetoday.com)
- Europe to explore Jupiter’s icy moons (news.cnet.com)
- JUICE Summary
- Nature – Europe plans mission to Jupiter
- BBC Science – Esa selects 1bn-euro Juice probe to Jupiter